Daily Life in Ancient Rome
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ANCIENT ROME @ HADRIANS
Index of Roman Emperors
JULIUS CAESAR: born 100 BC, died 44 BC. He was dictator
of the Roman empire.
MARC ANTONY: b. 83 BC, d. 30 BC. A relative of Julius
Caesar. Cleopatra committed suicide in 30 BC after the death of
OCTAVIAN "AUGUSTUS" CAESAR: Ruled 27 BC
to 14 AD. The Roman Senate pronounced him "Augustus"
in 27 BC.
TIBERIUS CAESAR: Ruled 14 AD to 37 AD, during the
time of Jesus' ministry.
CAIUS CALIGULA CAESAR: Ruled 37 to 41 AD, he was
a crazed and murderous emperor.
CLAUDIUS CAESAR: Ruled 41 to 54 AD. Thought to be
NERO CAESAR: Ruled 54 to 68 AD. Last of the direct
Claudio-Julio ruling family of Rome. Unsuccessfully tried to put
down the civil wars by peaceful means.
GALBA: Ruled 68 to 69 AD. His wife claimed descent
OTHO: Ruled 69 AD, supported Galba, but later turned
VITELIUS: Ruled 69 AD, was a close friend of all
of the emperors from Tiberius to Nero, and was ancestor of Julius
Gnieus Agricola, a famous Roman.
VESPASIAN: Ruled 69 to 79 AD. He ordered and supervised
the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
TITUS: Ruled 79 to 81 AD. Elder son of Vespasian.
Commanded a legion in his father's campaign against the people
DOMITIAN: Ruled 81 to 96 AD. Younger son of Vespasian.
NERVA: Ruled 96 to 98 AD. An elder stateman who
was related to the Emperor Trajan.
TRAJAN: Ruled 98 to 117 AD. A very colorful emperor.
Noted for another huge battle against the Jews at Alexandria,
Egypt in 115-116 AD.
HADRIAN: Ruled 117 to 138 AD. Trajan's wife Pompeia
Plotina recommended Hadrian as heir to Trajan, as Hadrian was
a relative of Trajan. He was married to Trajan's grand-niece Sabina.
HADRIAN (Article from a a different source)
ANTONINUS PIUS: Ruled 138 to 161 AD. He was adopted
as heir by Hadrian just before the latter's death in 138 AD.
MARCUS AURELIUS: Ruled 161 to 180 AD. He is generally
thought of as both a 'good' and an intelligent emperor.
LUCIUS VERUS: Ruled 161-169 AD. Co-emperor with
COMMODUS: Ruled 177 to 192 AD. A son of Marcus Aurelius.
He was a meglomaniac who was murdered on Dec. 31st, 192 AD.
PERTINAX: Ruled 193 AD. Prefect of the City of Rome
who became emperor upon the death of Commodus.
DIDIUS JULIANUS: Ruled 193 AD. After Pertinax was
murdered, the Praetorian guard proclaimed that the office of emperor
would be auctioned off, and Didius Julianus won by paying 25,000
sesterii to each of the soldiers.
PESCENNIUS NIGER: Ruled 193 to 194 AD. The governor
of Syria, he was proclaimed emperor by his troops.
CLAUDIUS ALBINUS: Ruled 195 to 197 AD. The governor
in Britain, he was offered the office of emperor as Caesar by
Septimius Severus, who was acting in the background as Roman ruler
since the death of Pertinax. He began a power struggle with Severus
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS: Ruled 193 to 211 AD. Was governor
of Upper Pannonia. Severus was saluted as emperor by his own troops
upon the death of Pertinax, and remained in the background until
Julianus, Niger, and Claudius Albinus were all defeated. He died
of natural causes Feb. 4th, 211 AD.
CARACALLA: Ruled 198 to 217 AD. He was the elder
son of Severus and Julia Domna. Given rank of 'Caesar' in 198
and 'Augustus' at age of ten. Ruled jointly with his brother Geta
when his father died.
GETA: Ruled 209 to 212 AD. Caracalla ordered the
assassination of his brother.
MACRINUS: Ruled 217 to 218 AD. Prefect of the Praetorian
guard, party to the murder of Caracalla. Saluted 'Augustus' by
his troops on April 11th, 217 AD.
DIADUMENIAN: Ruled 218 AD. Son of Macrinus, was
given rank of 'Caesar' at the same time as his father was made
'Augustus.' Diadumenian and his father were set upon and defeated
through a plot by Julia Domna's sister, Julia Maesa, in favor
of her grandson, Elagabalus.
ELAGABALUS: Ruled 218 to 222 AD. Son of Sextus Varius
Marcellus and Julia Soaemias, the daughter of Julia Maesa. He
emmulated the sun-god Elagabalus and took that as his name. Murdered
by the Praetorian guard.
SEVERUS ALEXANDER: Ruled 222 to 238 AD. He was adopted
by his cousin Elagabalus and given the title 'Caesar'. After Elagabalus
was murdered by the Praetorian guard, Severus Alexander was proclaimed
emperor by them.
MAXIMINUS I: Ruled 235 to 238 AD. Governor of Mesopotamia.
He was raised to emperor by troops dissatisfied with Severus Alexander.
Maximinus: Ruled 235 to 238 AD. Son of Maximinus I,
given rank of 'Caesar' at the same time as his father was made
'Augustus'. He was murdered with his father June 24th, 238 AD.
GORDIAN I: Ruled 238 AD. A Proconsul in Africa who
accepted the royal purple. Remembered as intellectual and moral.
He proclaimed his son Gordian as joint ruler. When his son was
killed in battle against Maximinus I, Gordian I committed suicide
when he learned of his son's death.
GORDIAN II: Ruled 238 AD. Co-emperor, killed in
BALBINUS: Ruled 238 AD. When the Senate learned
of the death of the two Gordians, it elected two Senators as joint
rulers - Balbinus and Pupienus. After 98 days the Praetorian guard
murdered these two emperors.
PUPIENUS: Ruled 238 AD. Joint ruler for 98 days
GORDIAN III: Ruled 238 to 244 AD. Grandson of Gordian
I and nephew of Gordian II. Given title of 'Caesar' by Balbinus
and Pupienus. In 244 he was deposed and murdered in Mesopotamia.
PHILIP I (The Arab): Ruled 244 to 249 AD.
A Praetorian Prefect who was a native of Arabia. His reign in
248 marked the celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the founding
of Rome. He was killed with his son Phillip in battle near Verona
in 249 AD.
PHILIP II: Ruled 247 to 249 AD. Son of Philip I,
he was given the title 'Caesar' when his father was given the
title of 'Augustus'.
PACATIAN: Ruled 248 AD. Usurper who was killed by
his own soldiers.
JOTAPIAN: Ruled 248 AD. A usurper who claimed descent
from Alexander. He was killed by his own men.
TRAJAN DECIUS: Ruled 249 to 251 AD. Born about 201.
When Philip and his son were killed at Verona, he was left as
undisputed master of the empire. Decius and his elder son Herennius
were killed in battle with barbarian Goths.
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS: Ruled 251 AD. Elder son of Trajan
Decius, created 'Augustus' in 251 AD. Killed with his father.
HOSTILIAN: Ruled 251AD. Younger son of Trajan Decius.
Given rank of 'Caesar' in 251, but died of plague soon afterward.
TREBONIANUS GALLUS: Ruled 251 to 253 AD. Chosen
by the army to fill the vacant throne. Gallus and his son were
later killed by their own soldiers.
VOLUSIAN: Ruled 251 to 253 AD. Son of Trebonianus
Gallus. Ruled jointly with his father.
AEMILIAN: Ruled 253 AD. Governor of Moesia, hailed
as 'Augustus' by his troops. He was later killed by his own men.
VALERIAN I: Ruled 253 to 260 AD. Proclaimed emperor
by his troops and upon the death of Aemilian became undisputed
master of the empire. Captured by the Persians in 260 AD. The
date of his death is unknown, but he was tortured to death by
the Persians while imprisoned.
GALLIENUS: Ruled 253 to 268 AD. Son of Valerian
I, made co-emperor with his father. The future emperors Claudius
and Aurelian were both involved in the murder of Gallienus at
the siege of Milan in March, AD 268.
SALONINA AUGUSTA: Died 268 AD. Empress/wife of Gallienus
and mother of Valerian II and Saloninus. Murdered with her husband
in 268 AD.
VALERIAN II: Ruled 253 to 255 AD. Elder son of Gallienus,
give rank of 'Caesar' upon his father's elevation to the throne.
But died two years later (of the plague?).
SALONINUS: Ruled 259 AD. Upon the death of Valerian
II, Saloninus, the younger brother, received title of 'Caesar'.
In 259 AD, he was elevated to rank of 'Augustus', but soon after
was put to death by Postumus, commander of the Rhine legions.
MACRIANUS: Ruled 260 to 261 AD. Son of one of Valerian
I's generals. He is sometimes called Macrianus II, but his father
never was proclaimed emperor.
QUIETUS: Ruled 260 to 261 AD. Younger brother of
REGALIANUS: Ruled 260 AD. Governer of Upper Pannonia,
killed by his own soldiers.
POSTUMUS: Ruled 259-268 AD. Commander of the Rhine
Legions. He ruled over Gaul, Spain, and Britain. He was assassinated by his own soldiers.
LAELIANUS: Ruled 268 AD. Usurper who lead an unsuccessful
revolt against Postumus.
MARIUS: Ruled 268 AD. A Roman army officer who seized
power upon the death of Postumus, but was murdered by his own
soldiers within a few days of seizing power.
VICTORINUS: Ruled 268-270 AD. A high ranking soldier
who succeeded Marius. He was killed by his own officers at Cologne.
TETRICUS I: Ruled 270-273 AD. Governer of Aquitania,
who was helped by Victoria (Victorinus' mother) to succeed Victorinus.
He and his son were captured by Aurelian, but both were spared
and went to live in Italy and proceeded to work in the local government
TETRICUS II: Ruled 270-273 AD. Was given rank of
'Caesar' upon his father's accession, co-ruler with his father
when captured by Aurelian. He retired to private life after governing
Italy for some time with his father.
CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS): Ruled 268-270 AD. A leading
General of Gallienus who was proclaimed emperor upon the death
of Gallienus. He died of the plague.
QUINTILLUS: Ruled 270 AD. A younger brother of Claudius
II Gothicus. He was proclaimed emperor by the troops upon the
death of Claudius II. His soldiers deserted him and he committed
AURELIAN: Ruled 270-275 AD. A very skilled General,
he was proclaimed emperor by his troops just after the death of
Claudius II. He was assassinated through the conspiracy of some
of his leading officers.
ZENOBIA: Ruled 267-273 AD. Her full name was Septimia
Zenobia and she ruled the Eastern provinces of the Roman empire
from 267 to about 273 AD from Palmyra. She claimed descent from
Cleopatra. She was captured by Aurelian and displayed along with
Tetricus I (& II) as captives in Italy. During her rule, she
extended her empire to include Egypt and part of Asia
Minor. Aurelian honored her by giving her a villa near Tibur,
where she retired and spent the rest of her life.
VABALATHUS: Ruled 271-272 AD. He was the son of
Zenobia and ruled with this mother.
[INTERREGNUM] A period of about 6 months between
the death of Aurelian and the accession of Tacitus, when the empire
was without an emperor. The government was conducted by the surviving
Senate in Rome.
TACITUS: Ruled 275-276 AD. The Senate chose one
of their own once again. Tacitus, an elder Senator who was named
after and claimed descent from the famous Roman historian Tacitus.
He was proclaimed 'Augustus'. This 75-year-old joined the army
in effort to put down the Goths, who were trying to invade Asia
Minor. Army life proved too much for him and he died at Cappadocia
in April of 276 AD.
FLORIANUS: Ruled 276 AD. The half-brother of Tacitus,
he assumed the office of emperor when Tacitus died. At the same
time, the army in the East proclaimed Probus as emperor. Florianus
went out to challenge Probus, but before any serious fighting
started Florianus was killed by one of his own soldiers.
PROBUS: Ruled 276-282 AD. Leading General under
Aurelian. Proclaimed emperor upon the death of Tacitus by his
troops. Murdered by mutinous soldiers at Sirmium in the autumn
of 282 AD.
CARUS: Ruled 282-283 AD. Praetorian prefect who
proclaimed emperor by the army upon the death of Probus. He was
killed by lightening (!) in 283 AD.
NUMERIAN: Ruled 283-284 AD. The younger son of Carus,
given rank of 'Caesar' immediately after his father was hailed
emperor 'Augustus'. During the Persian campaign with his father,
he rose in rank to 'Augustus' (probably before his father died).
But, was killed in 284 before his procession could make it back
CARINUS: Ruled 283-285 AD. Elder son of Carus, given
rank of 'Caesar' soon after his father's accession. Raised in
rank to 'Augustus' in 283. Murdered by one of his own officers
in the spring of 285 AD. His wife was Magnia Urbica.
NIGRIAN: Ruled (or co-ruled) about 285 AD. He was
thought to have been a son of Carinus.
JULIAN OF PANNONIA: Ruled 284-285 AD. His name was
Marcus Aurelius Julianus. He rebelled against Carinus in Pannonia
and marched against Carinus at Rome, but was defeated early in
285 and died at Verona.
DIOCLETIAN: Ruled 284-305 AD. Commander of the imperial
bodyguard. He was proclaimed emperor by the army after the death
of Numerian. In the spring of 285 after Carinus was assassinated,
he became sole emperor. He abdicated along with Maximianus whom
he chose to help rule the Western part of the empire.
CARAUSIUS: Ruled 287-293 AD.
ALLECTUS: Ruled 293-296 AD.
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS: Ruled 296-297 AD.
MAXIMIANUS: Ruled with Diocletian 286-305 AD, and
ruled again after a brief abdication 306-308 and then again in
CONSTANTIUS I: Ruled 305-306 AD. Father of Constantine
GALERIUS: Ruled 305-311 AD. His 2nd wife was Galaria
Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian.
SEVERUS II: Ruled 306-307 AD.
MAXIMINUS: Ruled 309-313 AD.
MAXENTIUS: Ruled 306-312 AD.
ROMULUS: Ruled 306(?)-309. He died in 309 AD. A
son of Maxenius. All coins with his likeness were made after his
ALEXANDER: Ruled 308-311 AD.
LICINIUS I: Ruled 308-324 AD. His wife was Constantia,
half-sister of Constantine.
LICINIUS II: Ruled 317-324 AD.
VALENS: Ruled 314 AD. His full name was Caius Aurelius
Valerian Valens. He was created 'Augustus' by Licinius I in 314
AD, but was murdered very soon afterwards. So as not to confuse
him with the later Valens, we might call him 'Valerian Valens'.
MARTINIAN: Ruled 323-324 AD. Created 'Augustus'
by Licinius I in 323, but was seized and put to death with the
CONSTANTINE I (The Great): Ruled 307-337 AD. His
wives were Fausta, the daughter of Maxinianus; and Theodora, the
step-daughter of Maximianus.
CRISPUS: Ruled 317-326 AD.
DELMATIUS: Ruled 335-337 AD.
HANNIBALLIANUS: Ruled as 'Rex' or King 335-337 AD.
CONSTANTINE II: Ruled 337-340 AD. Elder son of Constantine
I and Fausta. He was killed while fighting over territory with
his brother Constans.
CONSTANS: Ruled 337-350 AD. (Florius Julius Constans).
He was the youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta.
CONSTANTIUS II: Ruled 337-361 AD. Second son of
Constantine I and Fausta. He died of a fever November 3rd, 361
MAGNENTIUS: Ruled 350-353 AD. (Flavius Magnus Magnentius).
DECENTIUS: Ruled 351-353 AD.
VETRANO: Ruled 350 AD.
NEPOTIAN: Ruled 350 AD. (Flavius Julius Popilius
Nepotianus Constantinus). He was a nephew of Constantine I (The
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS: Ruled 351-354 AD. A cousin of
Constantius II, he was a harsh and oppressive ruler. His subjects
complained to Constantius II and Constantius captured him. He
was tried, condemned and put to death in the winter of 354 AD.
JULIAN II ("The Apostate"): Ruled 360-363
AD. He was a half-brother of Constantius Gallus and a nephew of
Constantine I ("The Great"). He was married to Constantius
Gallus' younger sister Helena.
JOVIAN: Ruled 363-364 AD. Captain of the imperial
Guard for Julian II. Upon Julian's death the army proclaimed him
emperor. He was accidentally (?) smothered to death, February
16th, 364 AD.
VALENTINIAN I: Ruled 364-375 AD. After Jovian's
death he was proclaimed emperor at Nicaea (by proclaimation of
a council?), and about a month later he made his younger brother
co-emperor. He died as a result of an epileptic seizure.
VALENS: Ruled 364-378 AD. Brother of Valentinian
I, he was slain while fighting the barbarians on August 9th, 378
PROCOPIUS: Ruled 365-366 AD: A relative of Julian
II ('The Apostate'), he rebelled against Valens while Valens was
on his way to Syria. He was proclaimed emperor at Constantinople.
Later, Valens' forces defeated him and he was put to death on
May 27th, 366 AD.
GRATIAN: Ruled 367-383 AD. He was the son of Valentinian
I and Severa. He was deserted by his own soldiers and murdered
Aug. 25th, 383 AD.
VALENTINIAN II: Ruled 375-392 AD. Son of Valentinian
I and Justina. He was strangled to death on May 15th, 392 AD.
THEODOSIUS I: Ruled 379-395 AD. Son of the famous
count Theodosius. He died of dropsy on Jan. 17th, 395 AD. He was
married to Aelia Flaccilla who was the mother of Arcadius and
Honorius (she died 386 AD).
MAGNUS Maximinus: Ruled 383-388 AD. A usurper, he
was later executed by Valentinian II on July 28th, 388 AD.
FLAVIUS VICTOR: Ruled 387-388 AD. Son of Magnus
Maximinus. With the death of Maximinus he was taken captive and executed
by Arbogastes, a general of Theodosius I.
EUGENIUS: Ruled 392-394 AD. He was put to death
Sept. 6th, 394 AD.
ARCADIUS: Ruled 383-408 AD. (Flavius Arcadius).
The elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, he died May
1st, 408 in his palace at Constantinople and was succeeded by
his 7 year old son Theodosius II.
EUDOXIA: Ruled with her husband Arcadius 400-404
AD until she died.
HONORIUS: Ruled 393-423 AD. Younger son of Theodosius
I and Aelia Flaccilla. He was married to a daughter of Stilicho.
He died at Ravenna in August 423 AD.
CONSTANTINE III: Ruled 407-411 AD.
CONSTANS: Ruled 408-411 AD. He was the son of Constantine
Maximinus: Ruled 409-411 AD. He later was pardoned
by Honorius after having rebelled. He retired to private life.
PRISCUS ATTALUS: Ruled 409-410 & 414-415 AD.
Prefect of Rome when the Senate proclaimed him 'Augustus'. He
was captured, and Honorius banished him to Lipara.
JOVINUS: Ruled 411-413 AD. He was proclaimed emperor
in 411 AD at Maine. Eventually captured and executed by order
of Dardanus, the Prefect of the Gauls.
SABASTIANUS: Ruled 412-413 AD. He was the brother
of Jovinus. He was slain by Ataulf.
CONSTANTIUS III: Ruled 421 AD. he was married to
Galla Placidia, the half-sister of Honorius.
JOHANNES: Ruled 423-425 AD. Theodosius II refused
to recognize him as ruler and he was captured, mutilated and while
still living, set upon an ass in the Roman Circus and finally
THEODOSIUS II: Ruled 402-450 AD. Son of Arcadius
and Eudoxia. He died as a result of an injury to his spine that
was inflicted during a wild beast hunt. He died July, 450 AD.
EUDOCIA (Aelia Athenais Eudocia): Ruled 421-441
AD. Empress and wife of Theodosius II, she retired to Jerusalem
and died Oct. 20th, 460 AD.
PULCHERIA: Ruled 414-453 AD. She was the sister
of Theodosius II and died in July 453 AD.
VALENTINIAN III: Ruled 425-455 AD. Son of Constantius
III & Galla Placidia. Assassinated in March 455 AD.
MARCIAN: Ruled 450-457 AD.
PETRONIUS Maximinus: Ruled 455 AD. Killed in the streets
by a mob.
AVITUS: Ruled 455-456 AD.
LEO I: Ruled 457-474 AD.
LEO II: Ruled 473-474 AD. Son of Zeno and Ariadne.
MAJORIAN: Ruled 457-461 AD.
SEVERUS III: Ruled 461-465 AD.
ANTHEMIUS: Ruled 467-472 AD.
OLYBRIUS: Ruled 472 AD.
GLYCERIUS: Ruled 473-474 AD.
JULIUS NEPOS: Ruled 474-475 AD.
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS: Ruled 475-476 AD.